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The new sailing twin skin setup 1 2 3 4 20 By Kiwing , July 4, Will Any Team Ever Fly A Code Zero? By MidPack , January AC TV Coverage 1 2 3 4 9 By zillafreak , November 11, Americas Cup returning to USA - Will not be aired on NBC By yoyoboy , Wednesday at AM.
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By Bacchus66 , January SailGP By Priscilla , January No Dumb Questions By TimmyHate , January AC75 class rule and interpretations By enigmatically2 , January 6.
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By DA-WOODY , January Whole the Hull and not one Mast snapped or even dropped without the hull By DA-WOODY , January Tactician v Grinder By Baconator , January If AM pulls out of Prada Cup?
By d2ba , January How large of a role does mainsail control play during maneuvers? The NYYC successfully defended the trophy twenty-four times in a row before being defeated by the Royal Perth Yacht Club , represented by the yacht Australia II.
The NYYC's reign was the longest winning streak in terms of date in the history of all sports. From the first defence of the cup in through the twentieth defence in , there was always only one challenger.
In , for the first time, there were multiple challengers, so the NYYC agreed that the challengers could run a selection series with the winner becoming the official challenger and competing against the defender in the America's Cup match.
Since , Louis Vuitton has sponsored the Louis Vuitton Cup as a prize for the winner of the challenger selection series.
This culminated with the J-Class regattas of the s. After World War II and almost twenty years without a challenge, the NYYC made changes to the deed of gift to allow smaller, less expensive metre class yachts to compete; this class was used from until It was replaced in by the International America's Cup Class which was used until The victorious Golden Gate Yacht Club then elected to race the America's Cup in AC72 foiling, wing-sail catamarans.
Golden Gate Yacht Club successfully defended the cup. The history of the America's Cup has included legal battles and disputes over rule changes including most recently over the rule changes for the America's Cup.
The America's Cup is currently held by the Royal New Zealand Yacht Squadron ,  who will stage the 36th defence of the Cup in March It was originally known as the "R.
Today, the trophy is officially known as the "America's Cup" after the winning yacht, and is affectionately called the "Auld Mug" by the sailing community.
It is inscribed with names of the yachts that competed for it,  and has been modified twice by adding matching bases to accommodate more names.
In Commodore John Cox Stevens , a charter member of the fledgling New York Yacht Club NYYC , formed a six-person syndicate to build a yacht with intention of taking her to England and making some money competing in yachting regattas and match races.
America won, finishing 8 minutes ahead of the closest rival. Apocryphally, Queen Victoria , who was watching at the finish line, was reported to have asked who was second, the famous answer being: "Ah, Your Majesty, there is no second.
The surviving members of the America syndicate donated the cup via the Deed of Gift of the America's Cup to the NYYC on 8 July , specifying that it be held in trust as a perpetual challenge trophy to promote friendly competition among nations.
No challenge to race for the Cup was issued until British railway tycoon James Lloyd Ashbury 's topsail schooner Cambria tons, design beat the Yankee schooner Sappho Ashbury entered Cambria in the NYYC Queen's Cup race in New York City on 8 August against a fleet of seventeen schooners, with time allowed based on their tonnage.
The Cambria only placed eighth, behind the aging America Trying again, Ashbury offered a best-of-seven match race challenge for October , which the NYYC accepted provided a defending yacht could be chosen on the morning of each race.
Ashbury's new yacht Livonia tons was beaten twice in a row by Osgood's new centreboard schooner Columbia tons , which withdrew in the third race after dismasting.
The yacht Sappho then stepped in as defender to win the fourth and fifth races, thereby successfully defending the cup. The next challenge came from the Royal Canadian Yacht Club and was the first to be disputed between two yachts only.
The schooner Madeleine Cuthbert filed the second Canadian challenge, bankrolling, designing and sailing the first sloop challenge for the America's Cup in In contrast, the NYYC cautiously prepared its first selection trials.
The iron sloop Mischief 79 tons, design by Archibald Cary Smith was chosen from four sloop candidates and successfully defended the cup.
In response to the unsuccessful Canadian challenges, the Deed of Gift was amended in to require that challenges be accepted only from yacht clubs on the sea.
The Deed was further amended to provide that challenger yachts must sail to the venue on their own hull.
Furthermore, Archibald Cary Smith and the NYYC committee devised a new rating rule that would govern the next races. Irish yacht designer John Beavor-Webb launched the challengers Genesta and Galatea , which would define the British "plank-on-edge" design of a heavy, deep and narrow-keel hull, making for very stiff yachts ideal for the British breeze.
This design paradigm proved ideal for the light Yankee airs. In , Edward Burgess repeated his success with the Volunteer against Scottish yacht designer George Lennox Watson 's challenger Thistle , which was built in secret.
Even when the Thistle was drydocked in New York before the races, her hull was draped to protect the secret of her lines, which borrowed from American design.
Both Volunteer and Thistle were completely unfurnished below decks to save weight. In , the NYYC adopted the Seawanhaka Corinthian Yacht Club 's rating rule, in which Bristol, RI naval architect Nathanael Herreshoff found loopholes that he would use to make dramatic improvements in yacht design and to shape the America's Cup's largest and most extreme contenders.
Both Herreshoff and Watson proceeded to merge Yankee sloop design and British cutter design to make very deep S-shape fin-keeled hulls.
Using steel, tobin bronze, aluminium, and even nickel for novel construction, they significantly lengthened bow and stern overhangs, further extending the sailing waterline as their boats heeled over, thus increasing their hull speed.
In a cup-crazed Britain, its four largest cutters ever were being built, including Watson's Valkyrie II for Dunraven's challenge.
Meanwhile, the NYYC's wealthiest members ordered two cup candidates from Herreshoff, and two more from Boston yacht designers. Charles Oliver Iselin , who was running the syndicate behind one of the Herreshoff designs called Vigilant , gave the naval architect leave to design the yacht entirely as he willed.
Herreshoff helmed Vigilant himself and beat all his rivals in selection trials, and defended the cup successfully from Valkyrie II.
The Watson designed challenger Valkyrie III received many innovations: She would be wider than the defender, and featured the first steel mast.
This saved 17 tons of displacement, but later subjected the boat to extreme electrolysis after the Cup races. Valkyrie III lost the first race, was deemed disqualified in the second race following a collision with Defender before the start line despite finishing first, and in turn withdrew from the contest.
The unraveling of the races left Dunraven in a bitter disagreement with all parties over fairness of the cup committee concerning claims. After he asserted that he had been cheated, his honorary membership of the NYYC was revoked.
At age 58, Hank Haff was the oldest cup winner in the history of the race. The climate was estranged until Scottish businessman Sir Thomas Lipton became the financial backer for the Royal Ulster Yacht Club 's challenge.
William Fife was chosen to design the challenging yacht Shamrock because of past success in American waters.
The latter had helmed Fife designs  in Yankee waters before, and he had shown perfect coordination with his hand-picked Scandinavian crew. But Barr successfully helmed Columbia to victory, and Lipton's noted fair play provided unprecedented popular appeal to the sport and to his tea brand.
Although upset with the Shamrock , Lipton challenged again in , turning this time to George Lennox Watson for a "cup-lifter": Shamrock II , Watson's fourth and final challenger, was the first cup contender to be thoroughly tank-tested.
To defend the Cup, businessman Thomas W. Lawson funded for Boston designer Bowdoin B. Crowninshield a daring project: his yacht Independence was capable of unrivaled performance because of her extremely long sailing waterline, but she was largely overpowered and unbalanced and suffered from structural issues.
Herreshoff had again received a commission from the NYYC, but had failed to secure Charlie Barr to skipper his new yacht Constitution. Lipton persisted in a third challenge in With the aim to fend off Lipton's challenges indefinitely, the NYYC garnered a huge budget for a single cup contender, whose design would be commissioned to Herreshoff again.
Improving on the Independence and his previous designs, the new defender Reliance remains the largest race sloop ever built.
She featured a ballasted rudder, dual-speed winches below decks, and a cork-decked aluminium topside that hid running rigging. The design focus on balance was exemplary, but the extreme yacht also required the skills of an excellent skipper, which defaulted choice options to Charlie Barr.
Facing the equally bold challenger Shamrock III , Barr led the Reliance to victory in just three races. Despite the immense success of the Reliance , she was used only one season, her design and maintenance keeping her from being used for any other purpose than for a cup defense.
The extremity of both cup contenders encouraged Nathanael Herreshoff to make boats more wholesome and durable by devising a new rule.
Proposing in the same year the Universal Rule , he added the elements of overall length and displacement into the rating, to the benefit of heavy, voluminous hulls and also divided boats into classes, without handicapping sail area.
This went against the American Yacht Clubs' and the British Yacht Racing Association 's general desire to promote speed at all costs for cup boats, but the NYYC adopted Herreshoff's proposal.
Lipton long pleaded for a smaller size of yachts in the new rule, and the NYYC conceded to seventy-five footers in Lipton turned to Charles Ernest Nicholson for his fourth challenge, and got a superb design under the inauspicious shape of Shamrock IV , with a flat transom.
Barr had died, but his crew manned the Resolute , which faced stiff competition from Vanitie , but went on to win the selection trials, before the Cup was suspended as World War I broke out.
Shamrock IV was crossing the Atlantic with the steam yacht Erin, destined for Bermuda , when Britain declared war on Germany on 5 August Harold Stirling Vanderbilt, the Commodore of the New York Yacht Club, had sent his own yacht, the Vagrant, from Rhode Island to Bermuda to meet them and escort them to the US.
The Vagrant arrived on the 8th. Having no radio, the crew remained unaware of the declaration of war. Finding all navigational markers missing, the Vagrant crew attempted to pick their own way in through the barrier reef.
David's Battery fired a warning shot to bring them to a halt. Shamrock IV and Erin arrived the next day. The America's Cup was cancelled for that year.
The Shamrock IV and Erin proceeded to New York, from where the Erin returned to Britain while Shamrock IV was laid up in the Erie Basin dry dock until , when she received some adjustments to her build and ballast, just before the races were held.
Despite Shamrock IV ' s severe rating, she took the first two races from the defender Resolute , and came closer to winning back the Cup than any previous challenger.
The Resolute won every subsequent race of the event. Shamrock IV was never raced again, but the universal rule drew significant appeal, especially in the small M-Class.
Believing that the new rule offered a serious opportunity for the British to take the Cup, Lipton challenged for the fifth and last time at age 79, in The J-Class was chosen for the contest, to which were added Lloyds ' A1 scantling rules in order to ensure that the yachts would be seaworthy and evenly matched, given the Deed of Gift requirement for yachts to sail to the match on their "own bottom.
Novel rigging technology now permitted the Bermuda rig to replace the gaff rig. Nicholson was chosen to design challenger Shamrock V , and despite the Wall Street Crash , four NYYC syndicates responded to the threat and built a cup contender each.
Meanwhile, Herreshoff's son, L. Francis Herreshoff , designed a radical boat: The Whirlwind , despite being the most advanced boat with her double-ended "canoe" build and electronic instruments, maneuvered too clumsily.
The old footers Resolute and Vanitie were rebuilt and converted to the J-Class to serve as trial horses. The Enterprise ' s skipper Harold Vanderbilt won the selection trials with great difficulty.
When Shamrock V was revealed, she was an outdated wooden boat with a wooden mast and performed poorly to windward. Lipton died in , and English aviation industrialist Sir Thomas Sopwith bought Shamrock V with the intent of preparing the next challenge.
To Nicholson's skills, he added aeronautical expertise and materials that would intensify the rivalry into a technological race. In , the Royal Yacht Squadron issued a challenge for Sopwith's newly built challenger Endeavour.
Endeavour received significant innovations, but Sopwith failed to secure the services of his entire Shamrock V professional crew due to a pay strike.
He hired amateurs to complete his team, and while the Endeavour was described unanimously as the faster boat in the Cup, taking the first two races, failed tactics and crew inexperience lost her the following four races to Vanderbilt's new defender Rainbow.
To challenge again, Sopwith prepared himself a year early. In , Nicholson designed and built the Endeavour II to the maximum waterline length allowed, and numerous updates to the rig made her even faster than her predecessor.
A change in the America's Cup rules now allowed a contending yacht to be declared 30 days before the races, so both the Endeavour and Endeavour II were shipped to Newport, where the RYS held selection series before declaring Endeavour II as the challenger.
Meanwhile, Harold S. Vanderbilt, taking all syndicate defense costs to himself, commissioned Starling Burgess and the young designer Olin Stephens to provide designs.
They anonymously produced three designs each, and thoroughly tank-tested boat models of the six designs, until model C was selected for its projected performance in light airs.
The resulting defender Ranger was even more accomplished than her challenger, and Vanderbilt steered his last J-Class boat to a straight victory.
The J-class yachts from the s remained the default for the cup, but post-war economic realities meant that no-one could afford to challenge in this hugely expensive class.
As twenty years had passed since the last challenge, the NYYC looked for a cheaper alternative in order to restart interest in the cup.
The first post-war challenge was in , again from the British. Briggs Cunningham , the inventor of the Cunningham sail control device, as skipper with Sears as navigator led Columbia to victory against Sceptre , which was designed by David Boyd at Alexander Robertson and Sons Ltd Yachtbuilders , for a Royal Yacht Squadron Syndicate, chaired by Hugh Goodson.
The first Australian challenge was in , when Gretel lost to the NYYC's Weatherly , designed by Philip Rhodes and helmed by Emil Mosbacher.
In , another Australian challenger, Dame Pattie , lost to the innovative Olin Stephens design Intrepid , skippered again by Emil Mosbacher which won again in , to become the second yacht, after Columbia of —, to defend the Cup twice.
For the America's Cup, interest in challenging was so high that the NYYC allowed the Challenger of Record the original yacht club presenting the challenge accepted for the match to organize a regatta among multiple challengers with the winner being substituted as challenger and going on to the cup match.
This innovation has been used ever since, except for the default deed of gift matches in and Alan Bond , an Australian businessman, made three unsuccessful challenges between and In the cup was successfully defended by Courageous , which successfully defended again in , at which time she was skippered by Ted Turner.
In the Cup was defended by Freedom. Bond returned in for a fourth challenge, complete with a symbolic golden wrench which he claimed would be used to unbolt the cup from its plinth, so that he could take it back to Australia.
In there were seven challengers for the cup competing for the inaugural Louis Vuitton Cup , the winner of which would go on to the America's Cup match against the NYYC's yacht selected in their trials.
Bond's yacht, Australia II , designed by Ben Lexcen , skippered by John Bertrand , and representing the Royal Perth Yacht Club , easily won the Louis Vuitton challenger series, and Dennis Conner in Liberty was selected for the Cup defense.
Sporting the now famous Boxing Kangaroo flag and the controversial winged keel designed by Ben Lexcen , the hull of Australia II was kept under wraps between races and was subject to attempts by the NYYC to disqualify the boat.
In the cup races, the Australians got off to a bad start with equipment failures and false starts giving the USA defenders a head start.
But it was not to be a repeat of the last years: the Australians came back and, despite a deficit at the start of the fifth race, won the America's Cup 4—3 in a best-of-seven format.
This was the first time the NYYC had lost the cup in years and 26 challenges and opened the opportunity for other US Clubs to earn the trophy in future races.
Alan Bond joked that the cup would be renamed "The Australia's Cup". For the first time since its inception the America's Cup was defended outside of the US off the coast of Fremantle.
This was a new era for the cup with interest in competing being shown by many countries. Now representing his hometown San Diego Yacht Club , Conner returned to win the America's Cup.
In the America's Cup regatta he faced defender Iain Murray sailing Kookaburra III , who had beaten Alan Bond's Australia IV in the defender selection trials.
Technology was now playing an increasing role in yacht design. The winner, Australia II, had sported the revolutionary winged keel , and the New Zealand boat that Conner had beaten in the Louis Vuitton Cup final in Fremantle was the first metre class to have a hull of fiberglass , rather than aluminum or wood.
The metre class rules stipulated that the hull had to be the same thickness throughout and could not be made lighter in the bow and stern.
The other challengers demanded that core samples be taken from the plastic hull to show its thickness. At one press conference Dennis Conner asked, "Why would you build a plastic yacht Chris Dickson , skipper of the Kiwi Magic KZ 7 , took the controversy in stride and with humour, and Conner has since stated his regret over his comment.
Eventually some small holes were drilled to test the hull, and ultrasonic testing was done to rule out air pockets in the construction.
The boat was found to be within class rules, and the issue was set aside. Fay ceremoniously lay down in front of the measurer before the samples were taken.
In , soon after Conner had won back the cup with Stars and Stripes but before the San Diego Yacht Club had publicly issued terms for the next regatta, a New Zealand syndicate, again led by merchant banker Sir Michael Fay , lodged a surprise challenge.